Showing posts with label C# Tutorials. Show all posts
Showing posts with label C# Tutorials. Show all posts

What’s new in C# 13 | C# 13 new features

 

C# 13, introduced with .NET 9, brings several notable features and enhancements designed to improve the language's functionality and usability. Here are some of the key updates:




Params Collections: The params modifier can now be used with any recognized collection type, not just arrays. This includes types like System.Span<T>, System.ReadOnlySpan<T>, and collections that implement IEnumerable<T> and have an Add method.

The `params` modifier can now be used with various collection types, not just arrays.

using System;

using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example {

public static void PrintNumbers(params List<int> numbers)

{
    foreach(var number in numbers)
    {
        Console.WriteLine(number);
    }

public static void Main()
{
    PrintNumbers(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
}

}

Explanation:

The PrintNumbers method takes a params List<int> numbers, allowing it to accept multiple integer arguments.

You can call PrintNumbers with individual integers, and they will be collected into a List<int>. 

New Lock Type and Semantics: A new System.Threading.Lock type has been introduced for better thread synchronization. The C# lock statement recognizes this new type and uses its improved API, providing more efficient thread management​.

using System;

using System.Threading;

public class Example {

 private static Lock _lock = new Lock();

 public static void Main() {

    using(_lock.EnterScope())
    {
      Console.WriteLine("Inside the lock.");
    }

  // The lock will automatically released here.
    }

}

Explanation:

A new Lock type is used to handle thread synchronization.

The EnterScope method provides a ref struct that implements IDisposable, allowing the lock to be used within a using statement for automatic disposal and release.

C# 13 introduces a new way to handle locking (thread synchronization) called System.Threading.Lock. This new lock type offers better control and efficiency for managing access to shared resources in multi-threaded programs.

Old Way with lock Statement:

private static readonly object _lockObject = new object();

public void DoWork()
{
    lock (_lockObject)
    {
        // Critical section code
    }
}

  • Uses the lock keyword with an object (_lockObject) to manage access.
  • The lock is explicitly controlled using the Monitor class under the hood.

New Way with System.Threading.Lock:

using System;
using System.Threading;

public class Example
{
    private static Lock _lock = new Lock();

    public static void Main()
    {
        using (_lock.EnterScope())
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Inside the lock.");
            // Critical section code
        }
        // The lock will automatically released here.
    }
}

  • Introduces a new Lock type from System.Threading.
  • Uses EnterScope method to acquire the lock, which returns a ref struct.
  • The ref struct supports the Dispose pattern, allowing you to use it with a using statement.
  • The lock is automatically released when the using block exits, making the code cleaner and less error-prone.

Benefits:

  • Efficiency Provides more efficient thread synchronization.
  • Safety Reduces the risk of accidentally forgetting to release the lock, which can lead to deadlocks.
  • Readability The new syntax with using makes it clear when the lock is acquired and released.

New Escape Sequence (\e): The \e escape sequence has been added to represent the ESCAPE character (Unicode U+001B). This provides a more readable and concise way to include this character in strings, as opposed to using `\u001b` or `\x1b`


public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string escapeCharacter = "\e";
        Console.WriteLine($"This is an escape character: {escapeCharacter}");
    }

}

Explanation:

The \e escape sequence is used to insert the ESCAPE character into a string, making the code more readable compared to using \u001b or \x1b.

Method Group Natural Type Improvements: The process of determining the natural type for method groups has been optimized. The compiler now prunes inapplicable candidate methods earlier, improving performance and following a more logical overload resolution algorithm​.

Improvements to method group type inference, optimizing overload resolution.

When you pass a method as an argument (method group) to another method, C# has to figure out which exact overload (version of the method) to use. This process is known as method overload resolution. In C# 13, this process has been optimized to make the selection of the correct method more efficient and logical.

using System;
using System.Linq

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        int[] numbers = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };

        var result = numbers.Select((Func<int, bool>)IsEven).ToList();

        result.ForEach(Console.WriteLine);
    }

    public static bool IsEven(int number)
    {
        return number % 2 == 0;
    }

}

Explanation:

The method group IsEven is explicitly cast to Func<int, bool>, allowing the Select method to use the correct overload.

The compiler optimizes the resolution of method groups by pruning inapplicable candidates earlier

Consider a scenario where you want to filter a list of numbers to get only the even numbers using a method group.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        List<int> numbers = new List<int> { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
       
        // Method group: Passing 'IsEven' method directly to 'Where'
        var evenNumbers = numbers.Where(IsEven).ToList();
       
        evenNumbers.ForEach(Console.WriteLine); // Output: 2, 4
    }

    public static bool IsEven(int number)
    {
        return number % 2 == 0;
    }
}

Explanation:

  1. Method Group: IsEven is the method group being passed to Where.
  2. Type Inference: C# needs to determine the type of the method group IsEven. The Where the method expects a delegate of type Func<int, bool>.
  3. Improved Resolution: In C# 13, the compiler more efficiently determines that IsEven matches Func<int, bool>, improving the performance and accuracy of the selection process.

Benefits:

  • Performance The compiler now discards unsuitable methods earlier, speeding up the resolution process.
  • Accuracy Ensures the most appropriate method overload is selected, reducing potential errors.

This optimization makes the code more efficient and maintains readability, especially in scenarios involving multiple overloads or complex method selections.


Implicit Indexer Access in Object Initializers: The implicit "from the end" index operator (^) can now be used in object initializers. This allows for more flexible and concise array initializations within object initializers.

Using the ^ operator in object initializers to access elements from the end of a collection.

using System

public class TimerRemaining
{
    public int[] buffer = new int[10];

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        var countdown = new TimerRemaining
        {
            buffer =
            {

                [^1] = 0,

                [^2] = 1,

                [^3] = 2,

                [^4] = 3,

                [^5] = 4,

                [^6] = 5,

                [^7] = 6,

                [^8] = 7,

                [^9] = 8,

                [^10] = 9
            }
        }; 

        foreach (var value in countdown.buffer)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(value);
        }

    }

}

Explanation:

The ^ operator is used in the object initializer to index from the end of the array.

This feature allows more concise and expressive array initializations directly within object initializers.

In C# 13, you can use the ^ operator within object initializers to easily access elements from the end of a collection. This is useful for arrays and other indexable collections, making code more concise and readable.

Before C# 13

public class TimerRemaining
{
    public int[] buffer = new int[10];
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        var countdown = new TimerRemaining();
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 1] = 0;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 2] = 1;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 3] = 2;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 4] = 3;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 5] = 4;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 6] = 5;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 7] = 6;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 8] = 7;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 9] = 8;
        countdown.buffer[countdown.buffer.Length - 10] = 9;

        foreach (var value in countdown.buffer)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(value);
        }
    }
}

With C# 13

public class TimerRemaining
{
    public int[] buffer = new int[10];
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        var countdown = new TimerRemaining
        {
            buffer =
            {
                [^1] = 0,
                [^2] = 1,
                [^3] = 2,
                [^4] = 3,
                [^5] = 4,
                [^6] = 5,
                [^7] = 6,
                [^8] = 7,
                [^9] = 8,
                [^10] = 9
            }
        };

        foreach (var value in countdown.buffer)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(value);
        }
    }
}


Array Initialization:


before C# 13 You had to manually calculate the indices from the end using Length - 1, Length - 2, and so on, which is verbose and error-prone.

With C# 13 The ^ operator allows you to directly access elements from the end of the array. For example, [^1] accesses the last element, [^2] the second last, and so on.

Benefits


Readability Using the ^ operator makes the code shorter and more readable.
Convenience It simplifies the initialization process by eliminating the need for manual index calculations.

These updates make C# 13 a more powerful and efficient language, enhancing both the developer experience and the performance of C# applications. For more detailed information, you can refer to the official Microsoft documentation and other developer resources


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